For live links, click to: riverhouses.org/2019-stilts
Every Friday we invite you and your homeschool students to learn about a different group of North American birds in your recommended bird guide (riverhouses.org/books). It’s a great way to add a few minutes of informal science, geography, natural history, and imagination to your homeschool schedule throughout the year.
This week’s birds (two different families) are the Stilts and Avocets (pages 114–115), and the Oystercatchers (also pages 114–115).
If you’re teaching younger children, the way to use these posts is just to treat your bird guide as a picture book and spend a few minutes each week looking at all the interesting birds they may see one day. With that, your little lesson is done.
If you have older students, one of your objectives should be to help them become fluent with a technical reference book that’s packed with dense information. Here are the guide’s introductions to this week’s groups, written in the customary telegraphic style:
“STILTS · AVOCETS — Family Recurvirostridae. Sleek and graceful waders with long, slender bills and spindly legs. Species: 8 World, 3 N.A. [North America]“
“OYSTERCATCHERS — Family Haematopodidae. These chunky shorebirds have laterally compressed, or blade-like, heavy bills that can reach into mollusks and pry the shells open; they also probe sand for worms and crabs. Species: 13 World, 3 N.A.“
When you’re training your young naturalists, teach them to ask and answer from their bird guide some of the first questions any naturalist would ask about a new group — about the Stilts and Avocets, for example. How many species? (Only 8 worldwide.) Are there any near us? (Only 3 species in North America, and the individual maps will give us more detail.) What are their distinctive features? (Waders with very long legs and long bills, and so on.)
Pick a representative species or two to look at in detail each week and read the entry aloud, or have your students study it and then narrate it back to you, explaining all the information it contains. This week, for the Stilts and Avocets, why not investigate our own American Avocet (page 114).
All sorts of biological information is packed into the brief species descriptions in your bird guide — can your students tease it out? How big is the American Avocet? (14 inches long.) What is its scientific name? (Recurvirostra americana.) Will you be able to find this species where you live? At what times of year and in what habitat? (Study the range map and range description carefully to answer those questions, and see the book’s back flap for a map key.) Do the males and females look alike? The adults and juveniles? What song or call does this species make? How do you tell it apart from similar species? (The text and illustrations should answer all these questions.)
Avocets are unusual among the birds of the world in that have bills that curve up, rather just being straight or curving down. That distinctive feature is reflected in the name of the Avocet genus: Recurvirostra. The American Avocet is widespread in western North America and the coastal southeast, but it rarely occurs in the east and north. Avocets are magnificent birds to watch, seemingly full of nervous energy as they wade out into deep water and sweep their long bills from side to side, stirring up the small crustaceans and other invertebrates on which they feed.
You can do little ten-minute lessons of this kind with any of the species in your bird guide that catch your interest. Pick a species that is near you, or one that looks striking, or one that has a strange name, and explore. For example, in this week’s other family, take a look at the American Oystercatcher (page 114), with its knife-like bill that it uses to pry open bivalves buried in the sand.
In all these Friday Bird Families posts, our aim is not to present a specific set of facts to memorize. We hope instead to provide starting points that you and your students can branch away from in many different directions. We hope also to show how you can help your students develop the kind of careful skills in reading, observation, interpretation that they will need in all their future academic work.
What ornithological discoveries have you made in your homeschool this Cygnus Term? 😊
❡ Homeschool birds: We think bird study is one of the best subjects you can take up in a homeschool environment. It’s suitable for all ages, it can be made as elementary or as advanced as you wish, and birds can be found just about anywhere at any season of the year. Why not track your own homeschool bird observations on the free eBird website sponsored by Cornell University. It’s a great way to learn more about what’s in your local area and about how bird populations change from season to season. 🐦
❡ Vade mecum: The front matter in your bird guide (riverhouses.org/books) (pages 6–13) explains a little bit about basic bird biology and about some of the technical terminology used throughout the book — why not have your students study it as a special project. Have them note particularly the diagrams showing the parts of a bird (pages 10–11) so they’ll be able to tell primaries from secondaries and flanks from lores. 🦉
❡ Words for birds: You may not think of your homeschool dictionary (riverhouses.org/books) as a nature reference, but a comprehensive dictionary will also define many of the standard scientific terms you will encounter in biology and natural history, although it will not generally contain the proper names of species or other taxonomic groups that aren’t part of ordinary English. (In other words, you’ll find “flamingo” but not Phoenicopterus, the flamingo genus.) One of the most important things students should be taught to look for in the dictionary is the information on word origins: knowing the roots of scientific terms makes it much easier to understand them and remember their meaning. 📖
❡ Come, here’s the map: Natural history and geography are deeply interconnected. One of the first questions you should teach your students to ask about any kind of animal or plant is, “What is its range? Where (in the world) does it occur?” Our recommended homeschool reference library (riverhouses.org/books) includes an excellent world atlas that will help your students appreciate many aspects of biogeography — the science of the geographical distribution of living things. 🌎
❡ Nature notes: This is one of our regular Friday Bird Families posts for homeschool naturalists. Why not print a copy of our River Houses Calendar of American Birds and follow along with us. You can also add your name to our free weekly mailing list (riverhouses.org/newsletter) to get great homeschool teaching ideas delivered right to your mailbox all through the year. 🐦 🦅 🦉 🦆 🦃